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2017 Breakthrough – Colliding Stars

In  August, scientists witnessed two neutron stars that spiraled into each other making an explosion, and all that at 130 million light-years away. The whole event lasted over nine days. The blast has put the general theory of relativity in the spotlight, it also revealed how many of heavy elements came to the existence, and it confirmed some key astrophysical models.

This is the first time in history that anyone observed the merger of neutron stars, and it is one of the biggest scientific breakthroughs of 2017. Scientists detected waves 27 months ago, and that was the breakthrough of 2016 – discovering the gravitational waves.

So, the astronomers concluded that a century ago Einstein was right all along. The theory of general relativity is: when two neutron stars collide, and that will generate a ripple in time and space – a gravitational wave. The scientists made a few wrong theories, despite their predicament, the light that emerged from this process, the ultraviolet, was bluer, and the radio waves became stronger over time. The predicament was that radio waves would eventually fade.

Colliding StarsResearchers estimated that this event, mergers of neutron stars, occurs in the Milky Way only once every ten thousand years. The collision made an astonishing flash of light that was brighter than, in comparison, a million suns. The beam of gamma rays that this event emitted resolved the debate where platinum and gold came from. The purely theoretical idea that the sheer force of this kind would be just enough to force the extra neutrons into the nuclei of atoms, and forge heavy elements like platinum, gold, and uranium is not just a theory anymore.

Neutron stars have a crust that is solid ten billion times than steel, and a core that is pure liquid neutrons. It is densest and smallest star known, and it wights at least twice more than the sun. This was two stars approaching death. They circled each other more than thirty times in a second, and then – the rays burst. The scientists who developed Ligo (The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) were awarded the Nobel prize in physics.

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Discoveries That Are Changing The World

Over the past few years, new archeological sites have been found in Africa, which largely change the earlier idea of the history of mankind. Africa, the cradle of humanity and the land of great ancient civilizations, is rich in archaeological finds that enable us to better understand not only the prehistoric past of mankind but also the fate of ancient empires.

The oldest representative of homo sapiens was discovered in Morocco.

The remains found this year near the Jebal-Irhud cave belongs to the oldest representatives of homo sapiens who lived about three hundred thousand years ago. Jebal-Irhud Cave did not become the first place where researchers found remnants and objects from the Middle Palaeolithic period. But it was not always possible to determine the exact age of the finding before.

The remains that testify to the oldest intelligent man were found by an international team of archaeologists led by scientists from Germany and Morocco. From the modern representatives of homo sapiens, these remains differ from the length of the back of the skull and large teeth, which they share with the neanderthal. Until recently, the oldest remnants of homo sapiens were considered to be those found in the territory of today’s Ethiopia and whose age was estimated at 200,000 years. The conclusions of this study, however, do not agree with all anthropologists.

In South Africa this year, an earlier unknown species was discovered.

JohannesburgIn 2017, in the inaccessible caves near Johannesburg, the remains of 15 hominids were exhumed and named in honor of the cave in which they were discovered – homo nal. They had a brain of orange size and very tiny bodies, the average height did not exceed 150 centimeters, and the weight was about 45 kilograms. In all likelihood, they could have developed the simplest tools. Their age has not yet been accurately determined, but it is assumed to be about 2.5 million years old. Further study for scientists will allow us to clarify the origin of our species and help us learn more about how the primitive australopitekus tried to transform itself into our direct ancestor.

The Limits That Caribou Biosciences Is Pushing

CRISPR engineering of the meditated genome was a development so revolutionary that it allowed all scientists the ability to engineer human genome, any and all part of it. And it did it with the astonishing precision. This was a huge milestone for medical science, and it was the headlines of every newspaper – because this technology had such a great range of capability in treating various diseases considering genetic disorders, and mutations on the genes.

In the time when a founder of Caribou Biosciences, and that is Dr. Rachel Haurwitz, begun researching CRISPR, it was then just an immune system that is uncharacterized and prokaryotic. She decided to co-found her company when she recognized that it had the potential for the various range of use. Caribou Biosciences company can utilize the specific enzyme Cas9. Her company developed technologies and tools for cellular analysis and engineering. Their goal is to research and use the potential of this engineering to its full potential. How? By considering concerns about delivery in organisms and cells, by refining efficiency and improving specificity. This company is already making commercial partners.

The wonders of Cas9

This company has the technologies and research tools that are providing astonishing capabilities to applied and basic development and research in the industrial bioscience, agricultural biotechnology, drug development. The founder is sure there is a great opportunity in making custom models of the cell line, for specific diseases. The people in this company believe in the significant opportunities on the market in molecules production, improving crops and plants, gene therapy for humans…

Caribou BiosciencesCas9 have the great capability in therapy in modifying the cells of patients at the level that is genomic, all for the purpose to repair the genes or prevent infections. The founder believes it will take science some time until it can achieve this rising potential because of the long timeline that is normal for this kind of projects. But she also believes that the trickiest part will not be editing the cells because there is a various technology that is doing that – the hard part will be safely and appropriately delivering this kind of technology. The one thing is sure, it is unbelievably exciting how fast this technology is adopted by researchers, and the expansion of its use and development will be a huge step for science.

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A Bright Future In which Briefcase Biotec Leads Us

The world’s attention is focused on Briefcase Biotec, a company that strongly promotes biohacktivism. This company develops equipment dedicated to the life science. Their product KiloNaser is the DNA synthesis machine Nespresso. Briefcase Biotec was founded in Austria in the city of Graz in 2014, by a team of biohackers – professionals in biology (molecular), computer science, and electrical engineering. This young team of innovators is trying to make the science independent and widely available, and it changes the world for the better.

The goal of establishing this company is the fact that the situation in the academic community was quite limited by young scientists and their development. Universities had great control over projects conducted by researchers, as universities are those in their possession that have research facilities. The problem is that those faculties have had a monopoly since they have the power to decide who has access to labs and equipment, and therefore who has the opportunity to develop their research projects.

Bioreactor and DNA synthesize

The founders of Briefcase Biotec were decided to build their laboratory equipment, and they dedicated their time to the bioreactor. Their system is open and free, independent of any university, and it leads them to what their company is today. Among other things, this company has  Open BioLab in its headquarters (for short OLGA) – it is the first hackerspace in Europe that got a license for GMO in 2013.

KiloBaserTheir system is made around open source software and open archeology. They have managed to reduce not only general costs but also those related to excessive spare extensions and parts. They have also implemented a system that enables remote monitoring and control of bioreactors at any place and at any time, and only via a telephone, computer or tablet, without additional installations. They have succeeded in making laboratory products and tools more favorable precisely for the sake of easier advancement in science.

This led them to their new concept – KiloBaser, a machine that has simplified the entire process needed to synthesize DNA, so the lab does not need to order samples from others. This reduces not only the cost but also the valuable time spent on delivery from another company back to your laboratory. Their machine has also simplified the whole process, and in this way significantly reduce the necessary costs and time.

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Analysis: Scientists and Academic, Social Networks

Linking scientists for the sake of cooperation can be complicated if international cooperation is involved. The same is the case with information, additional education, and research of academic materials of certain niches that spread throughout the world. That is why it is very important to create academic social networks that enable scientists to connect, explore, collaborate and promote their work more easily. The analysis of data from scientists’ activities on such networks shows that their open communication is limited, mainly to publications.

Example: ResearchGate

It is a network of more than fourteen million members. As an active member of the academic community, I can tell you that there are almost no scientists who are not on this network – the problem is that most of them are not active at all. There is a problem of positioning scientists in the online world. They mostly share their professional identities, but they do not update their profiles often enough. The number of those who share their publications is constantly growing, but it is the only thing they share.

ResearchGateHowever, the main problem is that not even a single social network for scientists is an established practice of exchanging advice and knowledge among them. Dedicated publications certainly accelerate the number of citations and the reference to the publication itself, which in turn greatly promotes the career of the author. But the exchange of knowledge and experience is not so much established practice. It’s rare for anyone to comment on other people’s publications or evaluate them. Very few scientists ask questions. In this community, it is very strange that only a small number of scientists are interested in sharing the practical knowledge and advice.

The problem is that communication on such networks is a very close imitation of a traditional academic one. It is necessary to open the door to more open and direct communication for the sake of advancement in science. Those types of communication already exist, such as among programmers and developers in computer science who are communicating all the practical information through the Internet for general progress.

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What Sciencebite Is About

The goal of Sciencebite is not only to promote world science, but also to make it more accessible. On my blog there will be texts about companies that push the limits of science, which people are pioneers in their research, you will find articles about phenomena that we did not believe will ever happen, but also there will be tips, explanations, and opportunities to make your research work more accessible, to make your projects more possible and successful, and to be informed with all branches of world science and all the beauties that she brings. Here on Sciencebite, you will find know-how articles, the real secrets that can help you, the scientific and unique explanations, articles that will help you acquire the skills you need to excel.

The vision we build on

My vision is to present you the relevant scientists, and the science that is unlocking all the mysteries of the world. The plan for Sciencebite is not only to create a site that will keep you stay informed about people, companies, pioneers in various fields, but the vision is also to make a platform that is completely open to all the scientists, providing the precious vast and personal experience accessible to anyone. On my Sciencebite blog, I will present to you the best of the best in this industry, and you will be able to learn from their know-how.

I will put the necessary spotlight on all the people, researchers, businesses, developments that are new, and worthy of your time. The goals are to make stronger connections among the scientists and show everyone how important, necessary, and beautiful this is. How the support, funding and public knowledge is important for science to push forward. This field has a lot of unique paths, and sometimes it can get overwhelming. I am here to promote the skills, the unique way science has, this industry, and our thirst for knowledge. We need to accelerate the world’s research, to connect all the relevant people, to have the knowledge not only about our field but also about all of it so that we can connect all the dots.

The goals we will reach

World ScienceThe Sciencebite will be monitoring analytics and research; I will be tracking all the new developments on a planet, I will be interviewing all the entrepreneurs and pioneers in the various field that are important for the world science, right here on Sciencebite. My goal is not just to keep up with the world development, but also to connect right people together and in that way help pushing science forward. For all of you who just wants to bite right into science, here is Sciencebite.

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